"It will have significant negative effects on the peace process in the Middle East and the security and stability of the region," a statement on Saudi Arabia's state news agency SPA said.
It described Monday's declaration as a clear violation of the United Nations Charter and of international law.
Kuwait and Bahrain said they regretted the decision while Qatar called on Israel to end its occupation of the Golan Heights and comply with international resolutions.
Trump, with visiting Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu looking over his shoulder during a visit to Washington, signed a proclamation on Monday officially granting US recognition of the Golan Heights as Israeli territory.
Israel seized the Golan Heights from Syria in the 1967 Middle East War and annexed it in 1981 in a move not recognised internationally.